Rotary encoder is a electro-mechanical device which is used to measure the angular position of a shaft. It converts the angular position of the shaft into analog or digital code. It looks like a potentiometer but it is different in operation. Rotary encoders are used in the automation field for detecting speed, angle, position, acceleration and position.
The difference between the two is that the output of the absolute rotary encoder will tell you about the current position of the shaft, making them angle transducers while the output of the incremental encoder will give information about the motion of the shaft which can further be used to measure the speed, distance and the position.
The encoder we have used is the incremental encoder. This rotary encoder is also known as relative or quadrature rotary encoder and the output of this encoder is series of square wave pulses. The rotary encoder generates two square waves which have a phase difference of 90 degrees. The two waves are known as the channel A and channel B. We can distinguish the direction of the movement by looking into the output square waves.
You can see in the below figure that the two waves are 90 degrees out of phase with each other. If the rotary encoder has moved clockwise, then the output wave A will be ahead of output wave B and if the rotary encoder has moved counter clockwise, then the output wave B will be ahead of output wave A. Also you can see from the figure that while rotating clockwise, the channel A will high and the channel B will be low and while rotating anti-clockwise, both channels A and B will be high.
If both channels A and B are high, then the switch will rotate counter clockwise. If channel A is high while the channel B is low, then the switch rotates clockwise. If you have any questions, feel free to ask us in the comment section. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Home Arduino. Types of Rotary Encoders There are mainly two types of rotary encoders Absolute rotary encoder Incremental rotary encoder The difference between the two is that the output of the absolute rotary encoder will tell you about the current position of the shaft, making them angle transducers while the output of the incremental encoder will give information about the motion of the shaft which can further be used to measure the speed, distance and the position.
Rotary Encoders – How it works, How to use it with Arduino
Working of Rotary Encoder The rotary encoder generates two square waves which have a phase difference of 90 degrees.
Timing Diagram. Rotary Encoder Arduino Interfacing.Al di là della luna
Leave a Reply Cancel Reply Your email address will not be published. Skip to toolbar About WordPress.Ever wondered about how simple an User Interface UI for your next electronics hack or project be?
Indeed, and you should also seen the humble rotary encoder and a Display as UI for 3D printer or other gadgets. In this tutorial we will look at building such a system with a Nokia display and a rotary encoder KY You may use any other character or graphics displays as well as other encoder models. Instead making the code generic, we will start building an UI for a digital clock. On it's home screen it will show time.
The pushing of the select switch on the encoder will display the Menu. The Menu in turn will have numerous setting for time, date, time format 12 Hour vs 24 Hourtime Zone etc. The basic hookup will remain same during the entire tutorial. We will test the encoder first and then the display. You may want to hook-up all the things at once or do it step by step. The encoder first and then the display. I would recommend doing it step by step.
Encoders are great input devices which have infinite travel in both clockwise CW and anti-clockwise directions CCW. What that essentially means is that the input range for your gizmo can be decided in software.
As in case of your clock, the user may have to transverse a menu of say 8 items. The range for the Menu will be 0 to 7 in both directions. However to input time from the user, the hours will be 0 to 23minutes and seconds will be 0 to Encoders will help us do all of the above. Apart from this the encoder we will be using also has a select switch. Which can be used to select menu items or confirm an action. I would highly recommend you to go through the Improved Arduino Rotary Encoder Reading instructable to understand the types of encoders, the internal mechanism and all the related terminology.
I started out with hooking up just the encoder with Arduino and printing the message on the terminal.
Arduino Menu Tutorial with a Rotary Encoder and a Nokia 5110 LCD display
The code is brilliantly written. The code uses to Interrupt pins 2 and 3 on Arduino. These are setup to trigger on a rising edge of the pulse. The interrupts trigger functions PinA and PinB for interrupts on pins 2 and 3 respectively which eventually result in decremented or increment the count. Since these are interrupt functions these aren't called anywhere in the setup and loop functions. Also notice the use of keyword volatile for the variables used in the Interrupt functions.Khutbah jumat paling bagus
We will cover more on interrupts in some other tutorial. However note that this code will only work if the pins 2 and 3 are used. Because other pins on Atmega will not have interrupt handling capability. The code below is all that is required to read the encoder position as well as the select switch. As said earlier I will be using a Nokia 84x48 pixels graphic display for this tutorial.
I will be using the well written Adafruit display and graphics libraries. The display is instantiated with the following pins.
You may use the sample sketch that comes with the library to test if the display is indeed working with the setup. The image below shows, exactly what we are trying to achieve.
The Menu is stored in the memory as an array of character strings.We have written a tutorial for Rotary Encoders using a Microchip microcontroller but now would be a good time to make an Arduino UNO version.
With a rotary encoder we have two square wave outputs A and B which are 90 degrees out of phase with each other. The number of pulses or steps generated per complete turn varies. The Sparkfun Rotary Encoder has 12 steps but others may have more or less. The diagram below shows how the phases A and B relate to each other when the encoder is turned clockwise or counter clockwise. Every time the A signal pulse goes from positive to zero, we read the value of the B pulse.
We see that when the encoder is turned clockwise the B pulse is always positive. When the encoder is turned counter-clockwise the B pulse is negative. By testing both outputs with a microcontroller we can determine the direction of turn and by counting the number of A pulses how far it has turned.
Indeed, we could go one stage further and count the frequency of the pulses to determine how fast it is being turned. We can see that the rotary encoder has a lot of advantages over a potentiometer. We will now use the rotary encoder in the simplest of applications, we will use it to control the brightness of an led by altering a pwm signal. We will use the easiest method to read the encoder, that is the use of a timer interrupt to check on the values.
We will use the sparkfun encoder as discussed above. The first thing is to determine how fast we need our timer to operate. In reality its never likely to be this fast. As we need to detect both high and low values this gives us a minimum frequency of Hz.
Lets go for Hz just to be sure. Note: as these units are mechanical switches, there is the possibility of switch bounce.
Using a fairly low frequency allows us to effectively filter out any switch bounce. Each time our timer code triggers, we compare the value of our A pulse with its previous value.
If it has gone from positive to zero, we then check the value of the B pulse to see if it is positive or zero.In our last tutorialwe examined how to create a menu for your Arduino project on a Nokia LCD, with push buttons to navigate through it. A menu is one of the easiest ways through which users can interact with devices with diverse features.
However, in some recent smart devices, either for aesthetics or for an improved form factor, a knob-like approach is employed for navigation. Rotary Encoders are used in several systems where precision and feedback in terms of rotational motion or angular position are required. By turning the shaft to the right or left, we either get an increase or decrease in value depending on the configuration.
One of the major advantages of rotary encoders is the fact that their rotation is limitless. Another good feature which will be handy for this tutorial is that they come with buttons attached, so it can be clicked by pressing the knob and is recognized by the Arduino just as any other button or switch.
As usual, the exact components used for this tutorial can be purchased via the links attached to each of them.
We will take out the three push-buttons and add a rotary encoder. Connect the components as shown in the schematics below. The rotary encoder used is an analog device, and for that reason all its three output pins are connected to analog pins on the Arduino. The code for this version of the tutorial is a little bit more complex compared to that of the last tutorial and you may need to replicate it yourself before you really understand the full scope of it.
Two of the libraries; the Adafruit GFX library and the Nokia LCD librarywill be used to interact with the display while the other two; the Encoder Library and the TimerOne librarywill reduce the amount of code we write to interact with the rotary encoder.
Each of the libraries can be downloaded via the links attached to them or installed via the Arduino Library Manager. Next, we write the void setup function. We also create an interrupt routine which will be used to detect button press within any of the menu pages. Up next is the void loop function. This function is the most complex part of the whole code. The function basically creates the menu and uses the variables created initially to keep track of the previous, current and next state so when the rotary encoder is turned, it knows the right menu to display.
The menu selection part of the code is also handled by a routine within the void loop function. Next, we call the readRotaryEncoder function to obtain the control inputs from the rotary encoder. Next, Data from the encoder is fed into a series of if-else statements which checks if the encoder was clicked or turned in a particular direction and which of the screens is currently being displayed to determine what action is to be done next. For instance, the first if statement checks if the menu is currently on page 1 and if the encoder is turned to the right indicates up.
If this is the case, it then checks the position of the menu cursor and adjusts it accordingly. The remaining pieces of code are the functions used within the loop including the drawmenu function and the function to read the rotary encoder. The remaining piece of code are the functions used to perform different tasks like reading of the potentiometer, drawing of the menu, etc.
Arduino Menu Tutorial with a Rotary Encoder and a Nokia 5110 LCD display
The complete code for the project is provided below and also attached under the download section of this tutorial. Verify your connections, by comparing with the schematics above, to ascertain that everything is as it should be. With that done, connect your board to the computer and upload the sketch to it. You should see the screen come on with the menu displayed. Try to turn the knob in different directions to navigate the menu and use the click feature of the knob to select an option.
What project will you add this cool feature to?Hello guys, Nick again, welcome to educ8s. Today we are going to be creating a rotary encoder controlled menu on a Nokia LCD display.
We have built a similar project in the past, but a lot of our viewers suggested that I should prepare another video on this subject so here it is. We will also be adding more options to the menu from the previous tutorial to enable us fully explore the ability of the rotary encoder to serve as a navigation tool. A rotary encoder is an electro-mechanical device which converts the angular position or rotation of its shaft or axle to an analog or digital signal.Arduino Menu part 1
They are used in several systems where precision and feedback in terms of rotational motion or angular position are required. Another good feature of the rotary encoder which will come in handy for this tutorial is that they come with buttons attached, so it can be clicked by pressing the nob and it will be recognized by the Arduino just as it will if it were any other button or switch.
To demonstrate the Arduino rotary encoder menu, we will be creating a simple menu which is displayed on the Nokia LCD display when the project is powered and with the rotary encoder, we will be able to navigate up or down the menu, selecting a menu option by pressing the rotary encoder button.
The menu has 6 items, and as we navigate and select each item, the display will change accordingly. Full disclosure: All of the links above are affiliate links. I get a small percentage of each sale they generate. Thank you for your support!
To simplify the schematics further, the pin connection between the components is described below. Connect the components as described and double check your connections to make sure there is no mistake. The code of the project is complex but I will do my best to explain it.
You will get a basic understanding of how the code works but to totally grab it, I will advise you try creating your own menu and see exactly how it works. To implement this project, we will be using 4 libraries. Two out of the four libraries will be used for the display, and the remaining two will be used to interface with the rotary encoder.
Next, we create variables to hold the menus after which we create an object of the click encoder and the LCD library. Next, we write the void setup function. The void setup function contains the code used to initialize our screen and the rotary encoder setting it to start at zero.
We also created an interrupt routine which will be used to detect button press during within any of the menu pages. With the void setup all done, we proceed to write the void loop function which is the one with some level of complexity. The function basically creates the menu and uses the variables created initially to keep track of the previous, current and next state so when the rotary encoder is turned, it knows the right menu to display.
The menu selection part of the code is also handled by a routine within the void loop function.A rotary encoder is a position sensor used to determine the angular position of a rotating shaft. It can be used with an Arduino through modules to achieve such functionality. With two main types of rotary encoder available Absolute encoder and Incremental encoder that adopt different functional technologies, one would beg to wonder how does all of them work? An absolute rotary encoder is one that measures an absolute angle of the encoded shaft through having a unique code for each shaft position.
This means negates the need for counters as positional values are always directly available even when power is removed from the encoder. A mechanical absolute encoder is a common low-cost option that is constructed with a metal disc and works as follow:. The above explanation applies to how a mechanical absolute rotary sensor works, but there are two other ways to detect rotational position changes; Optical or magnetic sensors changes.
Optical absolute rotary encoders are constructed with either glass or plastic material disc with transparent and opaque surface areas to allow the light source and photodetector to detect optical patterns. Such detection helps in determining the disc position at any point in time.
Magnetic absolute encoders are constructed with a series of magnetic poles to represent encoder position and sensors which are typically Hall Effect or magnetoresistive.240v contactor 12v dc coil
It shares a similar working principle of optical encoders, but instead of light, sensors detect a change in magnetic fields. As compared to absolute encoders, the incremental encoder works by reading changes in angular displacement instead of reading an absolute angle of the encoded shaft.
Also known as a quadrature, a rotary incremental encoder has two output signals, A and B, issuing square waves when the encoder shaft rotates.
Arduino UNO Tutorial 6 - Rotary Encoder
The square wave frequency indicates the speed of shaft rotation, while the A-B phase relationship indicates the direction of rotation. Whereas some rotary incremental encoders determine the amount of rotation through a separate counter that counts the number of pulses outputted in response to the amount of rotational displacement of the shaft. Such rotary incremental encoders go through such process of determining position with magnetic rotary encoders:.
However, with that said, there are still digital potentiometer available that provide easy pairing with microcontroller boards. Need a simple rotary encoder to help you get started in sensing rotation shaft with Arduino? This recommended option is the one for you! Need an option that can both work as a magnetic potentiometer or magnetic encoder with excellent reliability and durability?
This option is for you! Interfacing with Arduino is made simple through our onboard Grove Interface, allowing for plug and play instead of Jumper wires and breadboarding! Keeping the best for last is this optical rotary encoder that includes an infrared emitter and two phototransistor detectors.How to turn on nat default server
Quick Tip: You can change two no. For the best performance; both pins have interrupt capability, so you can change the code line 13 into Encoder myEnc 2, 3. Meanwhile, you should connect the sensor to port D2 of the base shield.Rotary encoders with centre-push buttons are cool input hardware for projects, especially if you want to be able to scroll through menus and select options.
Hopefully this Instructable will give you the confidence to try a basic menu system out and combine it with a rotary encoder to give a professional feel to your next project! I wanted to have a menu in an upcoming project and use a rotary encoder with a centre push button as my input hardware.
The rotary encoder will allow me to scroll through the menu options, i. A microcontroller is needed to manage all of this and microcontrollers need instructions, AKA code! The problem I had with existing Arduino menu libraries and menu code is that for simple menus they were overly complicated. Another drawback of many alternatives was that the code was designed for LCD screens and momentary push buttonsnot rotary encoders and adaptable to other display outputs.
These menus were geared around selecting between a small number of modes and incrementing values relatively slowly. We know that rotary encoders are a great hardware input option because they afford relatively fast input value changes while retaining fine control at slow speed.
I decided to follow some advice to use if statements for a simple menu structure and keep it sketch-based. The resultant code builds on my previous Instructable which sought to reliably read the rotation pulses and direction. Please check it out for background. In this sketch, we add the reading of the centre push button on the rotary encoder shaft, using code that Nick Gammon developed to record button state changes with debouncing and without relying on the Arduino's delay function that prevents the microcontroller from executing other code and would potentially introduce noticeable delay in our sketch, e.
Button state change code is much more useful than just reading digital logic high or low when using a button to select something once, like a menu option, as it can help you prevent unintentional multiple selections for each button press. Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. If you haven't yet, please see my other Instructable on rotary encoder reading to find out how to set up your hardware and Arduino IDE software.
The additional hardware connections you need to make use of centre push button are shown in the pictures. I used Fritzing to draw the diagram but it didn't have a rotary encoder component which represented the most likely pin layout, so just use that diagram in conjunction with the notes and look at the photo of the rotary encoder to see what you are more likely to be looking for in terms of rotary encoder pin layout.
One of the two pins on one side of the rotary encoder as opposed to the side with three pins needs to be connected to ground and another to a digital pin on the Arduino. I have used D4 for the example sketch. If you choose a different pin, don't forget to change the value of buttonPin in the sketch.
This is the code. By looking at the structure and the comments I hope you will find it easy to adapt for your specific needs! If you are happy with the menu's function, you might want to comment out or delete these lines for smaller compiled sketch size. Be aware that a key part of menu navigation is feedback to the user while they are scrolling through the option and settings.
Now, if you press the centre-push button you will set that value to setting1 or setting2 or setting3 etc. The Arduino automatically and instantaneously returns you to the top level menu once this has happened. While powered up, the Arduino remembers what you set each setting to and if you go back to the sub-menu for a setting you have already set a value to, it will start your encoder adjustments from the last value you chose!
I set out to write some sketch-based code that would allow rotary encoders to navigate a basic menu for Arduinos. I also tried to make it readable so that, unlike some alternatives, someone could see the menu structure and know what changes to the code they would need to make to tailor the menu to their needs.
This code is basic and generic, specifically to demonstrate the functionality while being easily adaptable to your own application. It uses the serial monitor as a basic debugging tool which also removes the need for a separate display if you want to see how the code works. I hope you find it useful and are inspired to edit, adapt and improve it! Hi Simon, This sketch looks great, but the only output i see equals like : 0 1 2 3 0 3 2 and so on.
Whats wrong?? Reply 6 months ago. Hi Harry, you haven't given nearly enough information for someone to answer your question. Can you get sensible readings using the code in my other Instructible that doesn't have any menu code?
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